2. The Innate and Universal Values of All People

Discovery Of The Seven Values

The discovery of the four primary values, illustrated below, was an unexpected bonus that developed out of an experimental “design team” that I had initiated in 2007. The topic and intention of forming the team was to discover the link between disappointment in intimate relationships and expectations and beliefs for intimate relationships. The three secondary values came along in 2014.

Seven Values Have Sustained Our Species' Survival

For that topic, we discerned that it was the erroneous values, beliefs, and expectations that people held concerning intimate relationships that produced the result — disappointment. It was somewhat obvious that disappointment in an intimate relationship was not a desired outcome, and that it must have been produced by erroneous expectations, and beliefs. Little did we know the result was due to mis-interpretations of the four primary values. Using the values, beliefs, expectations, and results, the team and I developed a format to aid our examination into other topics. Now, ten years later, its fully evolved form is presented on page 167.

In 2008 I had and “Ah-ha!” moment immediately after one of our Team meetings that resulted in the discovery of the four primary values. Weeks later, when the design team had completed its work as far as we could take it, I set out to prove whether those values truly existed. I already knew that if they did exist that they would probably have certain mutual characteristics. During the era of my research, their characteristics began to be revealed. Years later, the logic-relationship between these values and their characteristics resulted in the development of a logical, proactive morality and ethic.

The Mutual Characteristics Of These Values

The illustration above shows the seven values that are innate to our species. It also shows their relationship to each other. They are integral to our being, and give us the capability to make decisions to become complete as a person and offer us the means to have a positive and constructive social life.

Innate / Timeless

Even though I cannot prove it, evidence seems to suggest that these seven values are organic to our species and have been embedded in our DNA from our earliest beginnings. They have motivated us, everyone, to yearn for the improvement of our quality of life materially and socially.

These seven values are the original cause of human motivation, 6 (page 35), that urge us to improve our quality of life materially and socially. We can safely predict that these same values will continue to motivate our species to search for an ever-improving quality of life, and to grow into our innate individual and collective potential in future centuries and millennia.


These values are universal to all people of all races, cultures, ethnicity, nations, and genders. Ask anyone, whether they live in Bangladesh or Baltimore, Houston or Hanoi if they would like to develop the innate potential they brought into life and to improve their quality of life with an equal ability as anyone else would or could. The answers are universally the same.


The self-evident nature of these values is only one of several characteristics that have obscured their presence while in plain sight. The four primary values are self-evident similarly as those stated in the famous sentence in the United States Declaration of Independence, “We hold these truths (values) to be self-evident, that all [people] are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” The proof of this becomes evident when people around the world are asked whether they would like to enjoy an improving quality of life, as they define it.


Life and the three primary values are the superordinate values of our species and are not subordinate to any other values. The pursuit of life, equality, growth, and an improving quality of life provide the foundation for human motivation as interpreted by the individual, and express themselves in a personal hierarchy of needs.

The Four Primary Values

The four primary values are remarkable because they constitute an organic “code of decision-making” that will produce consistent results regardless of the culture in which they are used. These values urge us, motivate us, to improve the quality of our lives.

Life is the ultimate value.

Life, the three primary values, and the three secondary values create an integral system of values.

Decisions made about Life are qualified by the other six values as the criteria for human decision-making.


Equality is inherent in the value of life — everyone’s life is valuable. We give equal value to each individual, and we would seek to provide more equitable opportunity to every individual to develop their innate potential, as we would our own. This is the value that empowers us to work together to improve our world.

A Caveat for the primary value “Equality.” The moral and ethical person is not naïve to assume that everyone else is moral and ethical. But until proven otherwise be authentic, genuine, ethical, and do practice and use the Expressed Ethics, pages 55-59. It is unfortunate that we live in a hostile social environment where we seem to be constantly confronted with those who have chosen to be NON-human. Non-humanness can vary from short-changing us at the cash register to the extreme of kidnapping, rape, and death of a victim. Do not tempt those who are NON-human to express their inhumanity to you!


Growth is essential for improving our quality of life. To be human is to strive to grow into our innate potential. Only a proactive morality and ethic has the capability to support the growth of others.

This value ensures that the inherent potential of individuals, societies, and a civilization becomes expressed and fulfilled, which encourages an improving quality of life for everyone. Without growth, there would be no possibility of social evolution and social sustainability.

Quality of Life

While life is fundamental to survival and continued existence, it is the quality of life that makes life worth living and gives life meaning. In a democracy, access to the quality of life is provided when a person not only has an equal right to life, but that person also has an equal right to growth as anyone else. This is what makes immigrants so excited to move to a democracy — they seek freedom to experience the quality of life that makes life worth living — to control their own destiny and to explore their innate potential with the opportunities that a democratic nation provides.

The Three Secondary Value-Emotions

Equality  → Empathy, Compassion, and “Love”

The primary value Equality is the source for the three secondary Value-Emotions values, (see illustration, page 31). We know when equality is out of balance because of the secondary value-emotion of empathy – to “feel” or put our self in the place of another person and sense what that is like, whether that is in anguish or in joy. When we feel empathy for others, we want to act in compassion – to reach out to the other person and assist them in their situation. When empathy and compassion are combined and we feel that equally for everyone, then we say that we have a “Love” for all humanity — the capacity to care for another person or all of humanity, as we would for our self.

Empathy, compassion, and “Love” support the development of a higher quality of life for our self and with others by providing the motivating energy to grow into a more complete, mature, and functional individual within our self and within our social environment. They allow us to see the common good as societal rather than selfishly personal. Their expression demonstrates the highest ennobling qualities of human nature at its best. With these three Value-Emotions, we have the direction and motivation from which to develop highly positive family dynamics; and a loving, compassionate, and empathic means of validating holistic growth in individuals, families and societies.

When we consciously internalize the primary values and Value-Emotions, we realize that the collective power of individuals affects individuals everywhere, as much as the individual affects the collective whole.

A Unified Values-Based Theory of Human Motivation

A further proof of the integrated nature of the seven values is in how they have motivated our species to make decisions and take actions that have resulted in the sustained survival of our species for over 200,000 years. These seven values provide for a unified, values-based theory of human motivation. Eponymously, it becomes the Raphael Unified Theory of Human Motivation. 7

The closest reference to a values-based theory of human motivation that I could find in an extensive Internet search was An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values, by Shalom H. Schwartz.8 Schwartz lists ten values: self-direction, stimulation, hedonism, achievement, power, security, conformity, tradition, benevolence, and universalism. There is no dispute with these values as secondary or tertiary interpreted-values subordinate to the primary and secondary values. They have supported great contributions to the sustainability of our species by many individuals. Schwartz’s theory, unfortunately, was published too late to be included in Dr. David Forbes’ paper, “Toward a Unified Model of Human Motivation,” 9 that examined all major theories of human motivation.

A Unified Theory of Human Motivation. The synergism of the primary and secondary value systems gives us a complete picture of human motivation and an accurate reflection of us as individuals — thinking and compassionate. The four primary values and the three secondary Value-Emotions complete the circle of our existence by engaging the analytical-side of individual and social existence with the intuitive and heart-connected side of our existence.

We are motivated by our intellectual side to devise ways to improve our quality of life, whether that means discovering fire to heat our cave and cook our food to inventing the latest smart phone. We are also mightily motivated by what we feel from what m ost people call their “heart.” The secondary Value-Emotions give each of us the capability to improve the quality of our lives through our empathy, compassion, and “love” for humanity, both as givers to others and as receivers from others.

Further, these values give us the capability of improving the quality of our own life through our intra-personal relationship with our self; and inter-personal relationship with others. The unification of these two value systems motivates us to explore our innate potential and find meaning in our life, to confidently unlock our potential, and aid others to unlock their own. The three secondary Value-Emotions connect us to others through our empathy to act in compassion to come to the aid of others. In doing so, these values reflect that we are being fully human. Peace will never become possible until we become fully human in our intra- and inter-personal relationships.

These seven values have provided the motivating impetus to sustain of our species for 8,000 generations, approximately, and characterize our species as being human, humane. In other terms, the four primary values give us an integrated system of moral justice; and the three secondary values give us an integrated system of humane justice. The three secondary Value-Emotions give us the criteria to live our lives humanely in grace, to protect and nurture our self while we protect and nurture others.

As you have already seen that the four primary values have proven their capability to sustain the growth and development of our species, yet all social structures for the last 30,000 have failed miserably. The key to social sustainability are the four primary values combined with the three secondary values that offer their capability to sustain the social context of human existence. Only by their use will social evolution, development, and maturity of families and organizations, communities and societies come into being; and to become socially sustainable into the centuries and millennia ahead.

Functional, loving families, and good organizations support the development of our intra-personal relationship, and that in turn supports us to develop good, caring, and compassionate relationships with others. Who benefits? Everyone!

Values, Value-Interpretations, Hierarchies of Need, and Social Change

The original cause of the incessant social, political, and economic changes that erupted in the 1800s and 1900s are the same causes that push social change today — our individual yearning for an improving quality of life, to grow into the innate potential that we brought into life, and to so equally as anyone else could. Those values, today, as then, are always waiting for opportunities to urge us again.

The motive power behind SOCIAL change is from our changing personal interpretations of the Seven Values. What we define as social change is the collective movement of vast numbers of people who are striving to satisfy their evolving personal interpretations of the values that have sustained our species. Those personal interpreted values provide the basis for an evolving hierarchy of needs described by Dr. Abraham Maslow.

Dr. Maslow stated that as basic human needs are fulfilled more evolved needs become apparent to form a hierarchy of needs. What drives the evolution of the needs Dr. Maslow describes are the values that are organic and innate to our species. Our hierarchy of needs evolve as our interpretations of our innate values evolve — we are still using the same value system as our ancestors did tens of thousands of years ago, but we interpret them in new ways. Collectively, as individuals improve the quality of their life and grow into their innate potential as others do, they create social change through their “demand” for new avenues and new means to fulfill their evolving needs. Perceptive marketers strive to be in touch and in tune with the “demand” of the public to assess any changes in the market for the potential of new services and products.

While individual interpretations of the four primary values may vary wildly from one person to the next, vast numbers of people provide slow-moving, ongoing trends that stabilize the movement of a society over time. Social instability occurs when vast numbers of people sense that their ability to satisfy their needs is being threatened; and occurs rapidly and violently when they simultaneously sense that their ability is imminently threatened and there is no hope of preventing the threat.

Everything is fine.” 10 It is not surprising that most people in mature democracies assume that “everything is fine.” “Everything is fine” is assumed in the almost invisible slow creep of social change by most people who are easily distracted by the immediate events in their personal lives. Yet in only five decades, the macro-scale of social change in the United States has been immense. Its only evidence is how uncomfortable citizens feel with “the way things are” in Washington, D.C., other national capitals, and in their state and provincial capitals. When large numbers of the public sense and wake up to see that everything is NOT FINE, then social, political, and economic panic can cause rapid, large scale disruptions.

The motive power behind POLITICAL change. As vast numbers of the public sense that their current political processes do not support an improving quality of life for them, and do not promote the individual to grow into their potential, or support them to do both, those vast numbers become less and less satisfied with the status quo. In a democracy, citizens are used to exercising their right of self-determination in all things that affect them, including their government. They yearn for a return to the quality relationship their great grandparents had with their elected and appointed public executives.


By themselves the seven values are not sufficient to sustain the social holism for human social existence. More is needed. To create a social holism, where all social institutions and organizations make mutual symbiotic contributions to create a synergism of social holism for the social sustainability of everyone, more is needed beside these values. But, they do provide a foundation that cannot be achieved without them.

“Those who think they can
Change the world
Are the ones who do.”
Steve Jobs 

6    Raphael, Daniel. 2015, Social Sustainability HANDBOOK for Community-Builders. p. 28-30. ISBN: 0-9712663-0-1
7  Raphael, Daniel 2015 Social Sustainability HANDBOOK for Community-Builders, Infinity Press, Evergreen, Colorado USA p 28-30    ISBN: 978-0-692-41640-2
8  Schwartz, S. H. (2012). An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1116
9  Review of General Psychology © American Psychological Association 2011, Vol. 15, No.2, 85-98 1089-2680/11/$12.00 DOI; 10.1037/a0023483
10 Bohm, David  2004  On Dialogue: 68.